1. What is a Coating?

They are products obtained from the processing of burning clay-minerals, and may or may not be enamelled. They can be applied on floors and walls, depending on their specific characteristics.


  • Easy cleaning;
  • Hygienic and anti-allergic;
  • Waterproof;
  • Durable and durable;
  • Anti flammable;
  • Huge variety of design and paging;
  • Color stability;
  • Ceramic coatings, if specified correctly and seated according to the recommended technique, will provide an environment with long-lasting finish, beauty and tranquility.

The mass is the result of mixing various minerals ground and homogenized in a liquid mass(Babotina). Subsequently, this liquid mass is transformed into granulated, pressed, enamelled, decorated and finally burned mass.

In the same way as the mass, the typology of enamel directly influences the properties of the product.

It is of fundamental importance, in so that it can be specified (choice of the appropriate product) and base the product correctly, to have a good knowledge of the technical characteristics and performance of the ceramic coating, which will be applied on the floor or wall.

Currently ceramic plates are classified through Water Absorption Groups according to iso 13006 quality regulatory technical standard. The classification according to the absorption group is illustrated in the table below.


To ensure the maintenance of the original characteristics of the products and quality of ceramic products, it is important to take some care in the receipt and storage of coatings.

Click on the link below to know the main guidelines regarding the receipt and storage of ceramic coatings.


To ensure the durability of the coatings and satisfaction with the final result it is necessary to follow the technical standards of laying. Application failures can cause numerous problems, altering the expected  end result,  even compromising the aesthetic characteristics of the product.


For the laying of porly coatings of the water absorption group BIII (tile for wall application) Incepa recommends that the product should be seated with an ACI mortar. It is important to contact mortar manufacturers for better technical guidance.


Due to the natural curvatures that ceramic products present, Incepa recommends, in cases of unfound application, that they be applied with a maximum mooring of 15 % (1/4 of the piece) as shown in the following figure.

9. How should wall on wall be applied?

For wall-to-wall application it is necessary that the product is seated with a special mortar for this type of laying (overlap). It is important to contact mortar manufacturers to get better technical guidance in this regard.

It is the penetration of water inside the ceramic mass caused by the existing porosity. Directly influences mechanical resistance, resistance to ice and impact. The lower the porosity, the lower the water absorption.

After burning the ceramic product presents small spaces between the particles of minerals that compose it, called pores. The amount of pores that the dough (biscuit) presents is what determines the level of water absorption. The mass will be classified by technical standards according to absorption.

Classification of Water Absorption Groups according to ISO 13006.


11. What is gretation?

Greasing is the name given to cracks that occur on the enamelled surface of the ceramic coating. Moisture expansion (PUE) is the largest responsible for gretation.

The ceramic coatings (wall) have a slight positive curvature (convexity) so that the enamel is under compression, thus preventing the greasing from appearing in the future.

All Puro Grés and Porcelanatto  Incepa floors have high resistance to gretation due to the very low expansion by moisture.


The process by which ceramic coatings pass into their manufacture can cause small variations in the color of the product between one batch and another of manufacture. These small variations are separated by shades.

To obtain a satisfactory application it is important that, in each environment, the same shade is applied, that is, it is recommended that the parts be purchased in a single shade (single batch of manufacture). To do so, it is recommended that the purchase of the entire product that will be applied in an environment is made in the same purchase.

The tonality code in use by Incepa is always made up of two letters. Example: MA, NA, CJ, DJ, MO, FO, KD,  ED, etc.

Important: Every time the factory produces a certain product with a previously obtained tint, the code will be the same as that of the previous production (always respecting existing standards).

On the label of the boxes are engraved the codes identifying the various classifications of the product, including the identification of the tonality of the ceramic product.

In the production process of ceramic plates, due to the typical characteristics of this material, there may be minimal variations in size, which are separated as gauges (sizes).

The products produced by Incepa have much stricter size variation limits than national and international quality technical standards, which allows the customer to purchase products with the smallest settlement joints on the market and, consequently, greater satisfaction with the final result of the application.

Incepa uses characters to identify the tracks, being one character for each size range:

On the label of the boxes are written the codes identifying the various classifications of the product.

It is the increase in the size of the ceramic plate through prolonged contact with moisture or with the sharp variation in temperature.

IMPORTANT: It is indispensable to use application joints between the parts and joints of dilation and solidarization (see the topic Important Recommendations – Orientation of laying of Wall coverings), both on the wall and on the floor to absorb these variations, thus avoiding problems such as detachment of the plates or structural cracks.

It is a product developed exclusively by Incepa where the decoration almost totally reaches the surface of the piece. This means that after applied the typical frames of products without Flat Edge disappear, effect until then only obtained with the rectification (cutting) of the product.

The technique is applied only to wall products in formats 25×60, 33×45 and 33×60 without reliefs.

Check out some advantages of Flat Edge products:

Better aesthetic finish compared to products without Flat Edge

Effect of the rectified product applied, with greater ease of handling

Better cost x benefit, compared to rectified products

Perfect sizes for floors and walls

In the serial production of ceramic parts there may be minimal variations in size. When the design requires a uniform aesthetic, it is recommended the rectified product that goes through a perfect cutting process that ensures the exact dimension of the parts.

Recognize when a product is rectified:

Perfect cutting around the parts that allows precise alignment and allows the use of a minimum joint of 1 mm between the parts.


Dry joint, uniform appearance

It is the application of the product without spaces between the parts. The Dry Joint provides the effect of a single plate, in which the seam between the parts is not noticed. In the case of products with the effect of tablets, all grooves in the middle of the parts must be rejoined.

Grooved products:

To maintain the desired aesthetic effect, products such as Patina and Cittá  should be seated with Dry Joint. In addition, all grooves must be rejoined.


It is a ceramic coating with thickness 30% thinner than conventional products. The ceramic plates with only 6mm allow the application on old coatings, as well as on new walls of internal environments. With the application of THE INCEPA EASY WALL on the old coatings there is no need for breaking or demolition. In addition to the reform being faster and more practical, it greatly decreases the volume of dirt and debris of the work. Not to mention time savings. Easy wall the wall on wall of the Incepa.